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【FAQ】Question and Answers for 802.11n Technology

Q: What is 802.11n? A: 802.11n is a developing new-generation Wi-Fi standard for wide area wireless networks. Devices built to the 802.11n specification will provide significantly higher performance levels than is possible with legacy 802.11b, 802.11a and 802.11g technologies. Q: Why do I need 802.11n products? A: 802.11n is a breakthrough technology that enables Wi-Fi networks to do more, faster, over a larger area. 802.11n Wi-Fi provides the very best connection available for computer networking and home entertainment applications alike – delivering the range, bandwidth, and performance today’s multimedia applications and products demand. Key features of 802.11n products include: ? A strong Wi-Fi signal that can blanket the entire home ? The whole family sharing an internet connection on a wide array of devices without degradation ? Plenty of bandwidth to move high-definition video and audio streams from device to device, throughout the home ? The best user experience with voice calls, video games, and other multimedia applications ? Back up large files in a snap ? Confidence that devices from different manufacturers will work together Q: What levels of performance can be expected from 802.11n? A: Initial products using will operate at up to 300 Mbps physical data rates, this data rate translates into actual end-user throughput of more than 160 Mbps, nearly six times the rate of 802.11a and 802.11g. Q: The highest internet download speed possible with Cable and DSL is 3 Mbps. Why do I need more than the 54 Mbps my 802.11g router provides to handle such traffic? A: While the throughput of Cable and DSL connections is limited to a maximum of 3 Mbps, devices connected within a network have the throughput capacity of the devices themselves. The 54 Mbps physical rate delivered by 802.11g and 802.11a devices is more than enough to support standard internet activities such as web browsing, email and average data transfers. However, 54 Mbps physical rate translates into 24 Mbps of actual end-user throughput. This throughput level is not capable of supporting simultaneous; high-bandwidth applications on a single network such as streaming of multiple HD video transmissions from a wireless media server to a set-top box. And, while many 802.11g and 802.11a networks offer good coverage, none can provide the robust connectivity and coverage required to operate high-bandwidth applications that extend to every room and corner of the home. Q: Which applications require throughput levels not easily supported by legacy Wi-Fi networks? A: The emergence of the 802.11n standard signals the wireless industry’s move beyond traditional PC networking into consumer electronics including high definition (HD) and standard definition (SD) video disc players, PVRs,, gaming systems, media servers and players. A greatly increased level of throughput is required by consumers and product manufacturers to support the growing number of consumer and business applications demanding much greater wireless bandwidth than currently available with legacy devices. Higher throughput supports multiple applications on a single network. These applications are multimedia transmissions including HD (high-definition) video streams and wireless gaming. Many of the applications growing in popularity require steady, reliable bandwidth. So while voice over internet protocol (VoIP), for example, does not require extremely high throughput levels, it needs a constant supply of uninterrupted bandwidth to avoid jitters and frozen or dropped calls. This is also true of video or gaming transmissions. Some of the bandwidth requirements of these applications: · MPEG 2 HDTV 1080i - 19 to 20 Mbps for a channel · WM 9* and MPEG 4 - 8 Mbps per single stream · Microsoft Media Center standard TV stream – 8 to 10 Mbps per stream · Video Gaming – 10 Mbps per console · VoIP calls – 1 Mbps · Audio files/MP3 – 2 Mbps · Digital photography – 1+ Mbps *It should be noted that digital content delivered by cable and satellite operators is provided in MPEG 2 format. Also, broadcast ATSC HD standard and cable and satellite HD is encoded in MPEG 2. While WM 9 and MPEG 4 require lower bandwidth for effective operation, they are not yet widely deployed. Given the relatively limited bandwidth of legacy devices, it is clear that high bandwidth multimedia applications and latency intolerant applications cannot operate effectively on legacy networks. Q: Can I use 802.11n products with my old Wi-Fi gear? A: Yes. 802.11n products are tested for backward compatibility with 802.11 a/b/g gear. Users should match the letters on the logo for the new product to the standard in their old product. Q: If I have a mixed network of 802.11n and previous generation Wi-Fi gear (802.11 a/b/g), can I still get the benefits of 802.11n? A: 802.11n gear is backward-compatible with 802.11 a/b/g gear that operates in the same frequency bands. When using an 802.11n router (access point), you will probably see some performance improvements on a mixed network, but the dramatic range and throughput improvements are only possible when both client and network devices are 802.11n. Mix-Mode Scenarios: Scenario One: The access point is based on 802.11n, the client is 802.11g. The access point will communicate with the client in 802.11g mode, and the devices will deliver 802.11g performance. Figure 1: 802.11g client on 802.11n network. Scenario Two: The access point is based on 802.11n and there are one or more 802.11n clients, and one or more 802.11g clients. The access point will communicate in 802.11n to the 802.11n clients; the access point will speak 802.11g to the 802.11g clients. The devices should deliver the performance expected from 802.11n and 802.11g, respectively. Figure 2: 802.11n and 802.11g clients operating on an 802.11n network. Scenario Three: The router/access point is 802.11a or 802.11g and it is connected to an 802.11n client. Again, the negotiation of protocols will be completely seamless. The 802.11n client will communicate in either legacy 802.11a or 802.11g mode to the legacy AP. Figure 3: 802.11n client on an 802.11g network Q: What is MIMO? A: Multiple-input and multiple-output, or MIMO, (pronounced mee-moh or mai-moh) refers to the use of multiple antennas both at the transmitter and receiver to improve the performance of radio communication systems. It is one of several forms of smart antenna (SA) in a narrow sense or the state of the art of SA technology. The MIMO technology enlarges the scope and penetration of the wireless signal and eliminates dead zones. It is similar to having two FM radios tuned to the same channel at the same time – the signal becomes louder and clearer. This multiplies the performance of the Wi-Fi signal, and is reflected in the two, three, or even more antennas found on some 802.11n routers. Q: Why can’t my wireless device connect that 300 Mbps? A: 1) If you are using encryption the router must be configured to use AES cipher. In some firmware versions/models, the only way to get the AES cipher is to run WPA2-PSK. 2) The channel width needs to be set to 20/40 Auto, if it is not, the adapter will report a connection speed of 130Mbps. This is a feature that was added for compatibility with Intel 802.11n adapters, as they only operate on a channel width of 20.

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【FAQ】How do I check if the TCP/IP properties are correct on Windows Vista& Windows 7

Step 1 Click Start on the task bar, type cmd into the search box, and then press Enter to open prompt window. Step 2 Type ipconfig /all at the prompt window, then press Enter. It will show the IP address, Subnet Mask, Default Gateway and so on. Note: If the IP address is 169.254.x.x or 0.0.0.0, it means that the IP address is incorrect, you need to configure the TCP/IP Properties for your computer. Step 3 Ping the IP address of the router Type Ping 192.168.1.1 on the prompt window. If the result is shown as below, it means the IP address is correct and you can connect to the router. Note: If the result shown as below, it means that your computer can not connect to the router, please double check the TCP/IP configuration according to above steps. Restart the computer and router is also recommended. If you had changed the IP address, please type the new IP address instead of 192.168.1.1.

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【FAQ】How to configure wired TCP/IP Properties of my computer(Windows XP,Vista,7,8,Mac)

Choose your computer’s operating system. For Windows XP: Step 1 Click Start->Control Panel->select and double click Network and internet connections->select and double click Network Connections. Step 2 Double-click the Local Area Connection icon; highlight Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) tab in the Local Area Connection Properties window that appears: Step 3 Double click it or click Properties. The TCP/IP Properties window will display. Step 4 Now you have two ways to configure the TCP/IP protocol below: 1. Assigned by DHCP Sever Select Obtain an IP address automatically and Obtain DNS Server address automatically, as shown in the figure below. These may be selected by default. Then click OK to save setting. 2. Assigned manually 1) Select Use the following IP address, as shown in the following figure. If the router’s LAN IP address is 192.168.1.1, please type in IP address 192.168.1.x (x is from 2 to 253), subnet mask 255.255.255.0, and default gateway 192.168.1.1. 2) Select Use the following DNS server addresses, as shown in the following figure. And then type the DNS server IP address, which should be provided by your ISP. Finally remember to click OK to save settings. Note: In most cases, type your local area DNS server IP addresses into it. The Preferred DNS server is same to default gateway. For Secondary DNS server, you could leave it blank or type in 8.8.8.8. Step 5 Click OK to save and apply your settings. For Windows Vista & Windows 7 Step 1 Click on windows key+ R key on the keyboard at the same time. Step 2 Type ncpa.cpl in the box, then press OK. Step 3 Select the local area connection, right click it and select Properties. Step 4 Select Internet Protocol Version 4(TCP/IPv4), double click it or click Properties. Step 5 There are two ways to configure the TCP/IP Properties, Assigned by DHCP server automatically or manually. 1. Assigned by DHCP server Select Obtain an IP address automatically and Obtain DNS server address automatically. If necessary, then click OK to save the settings. 2. Assigned manually 1) Select Use the following IP address, type IP address, subnet mask and default gateway IP address into it. If the router’s LAN IP address is 192.168.1.1, please type in IP address 192.168.1.x (x is from 2 to 253), subnet mask 255.255.255.0, and default gateway 192.168.1.1. 2) Select Use the following DNS server addresses, as shown in the following figure. And then type the DNS server IP address, which should be provided by your ISP. If necessary, then click OK to save the settings. Note: In most cases, type your local area DNS server IP addresses into it. The Preferred DNS server is same to default gateway. For Secondary DNS server, you could leave it blank or type in 8.8.8.8. Step 6 Click OK to save and apply your settings. For Windows 8 Step 1 Go to Control Panel. Here we will illustrate different ways to find control panel on Windows 8. 1) Press “Windows key +F”, a search box will come out, please input control panel and press enter; 2)Press “Windows key+ R”, then there will be a “run” box, input control panel and press enter; 3) Press “Windows key +X”, and click on “control panel”; 4) You can also input “control panel” in the search bar on the right-hand side of the screen. To check the IP address of the computer, please click on “Network and InternetàNetwork and Sharing CenteràChange Adapter Settings(on the left)”; Step 2 Right click on “Ethernet”, go to “Properties”, and then choose “Internet Protocol Version 4”, click on Properties; Step 3 There are two ways to configure the TCP/IP Properties, Assigned by DHCP server automatically or manually. 1. Assigned by DHCP server Select Obtain an IP address automatically and Obtain DNS server address automatically. If necessary, then click OK to save the settings. 2. Assigned manually 1) Select Use the following IP address, type IP address, subnet mask and default gateway IP address into it. If the router’s LAN IP address is 192.168.1.1, please type in IP address 192.168.1.x (x is from 2 to 253), subnet mask 255.255.255.0, and default gateway 192.168.1.1. 2) Select Use the following DNS server addresses, as shown in the following figure. And then type the DNS server IP address, which should be provided by your ISP. If necessary, then click OK to save the settings. Note: In most cases, type your local area DNS server IP addresses into it. The Preferred DNS server is same to default gateway. For Secondary DNS server, you could leave it blank or type in 8.8.8.8. Step 4 Click OK to save and apply your settings. For MAC: Step 1 Click the Apple menu ->select System Preferences-> Network -> Highlight Ethernet. Step 2 Input the Configure IPv4 field, you have four ways to configure the IPv4 below: 1) Select Using DHCP. If necessary, then click Apply to save the settings. 2) Select using DHCP with manual address.If the router’s LAN IP address is 192.168.1.1, please type in IP address 192.168.1.x (x is from 2 to 253) 3) Select "Using BootP", and then fill in the parameters you need. Please don’t select it if it’s unnecessary. 4)Select "Manually", and then fill in the parameters like below. If necessary, then click Apply. If the router’s LAN IP address is 192.168.1.1, please type in IP address 192.168.1.x (x is from 2 to 253), subnet mask 255.255.255.0, and default gateway 192.168.1.1. Note: 1. DNS server should be provided by your ISP. Please contact with your ISP to check them. 2. In most cases, you could type your local area DNS server IP addresses into it. The DNS server is same to Router LAN IP address. In some cases, you could also leave it blank or type in 8.8.8.8.

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【FAQ】How do I check whether the TCP/IP settings are correct on Windows XP?

Note: The IP address of your computer must be in the same subnet with the router in order to connect to it. For example: The IP address of TP-LINK router is 192.168.1.1, so the IP address of your computer should be in the range of 192.168.1.2 ~ 192.168.1.254 and with a subnet mask 255.255.255.0, the Default Gateway should be 192.168.1.1. Step 1 Check the IP configuration 1. Click Start->Run, type cmd and press Enter to open prompt window. 2. Type ipconfig/all and press Enter at the prompt window. It will show the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, DNS Servers and so on. Note: If the IP address is 169.254.X.X or 0.0.0.0, it means that the IP address is incorrect. You need to reconfigure the TCP/IP Properties for your computer. Step 2 Ping the IP address of the router Click Start -> Run, type cmd and press Enter, and then type ping 192.168.1.1 at the prompt window and press Enter. Note: If you had changed the default IP Address of the Router, please type the new IP address instead of 192.168.1.1. 1. If the result shown as below, it means the IP address is correct and can connect to the router. 2. If the result shown as below, it means that your computer can not connect to the router, you need reconfigure the TCP/IP configuration of your computer or renew for a new IP address when you had been configure the computer to obtain an IP address automatically.

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【FAQ】How do I renew the IP address for my computer(Windows XP/Vista/7)?

If you have configured your computer to Obtain an IP address automatically, sometimes such as after you change the IP address of your router, you need renew the IP address of your computer to access the network/router. For Windows 2000 & Windows 2003 & Windows XP Step 1 Click Start->Run, type cmd and press Enter. Step 2 Type ipconfig /release at the prompt window, press Enter, it will release the current IP configuration. Step 3 Type ipconfig /renew at the prompt window, press Enter, wait for a while, the DHCP server will assign a new IP address for your computer. For Windows Vista& Windows 7 Step 1 Click Start on the task bar, type cmd into the search box and press Enter. Step 2 Type ipconfig /renew at the prompt window, wait for a while, the DHCP server will assign a new IP address for your computer.

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【FAQ】How do I connect to wireless network by using Windows built-in Utility/Client(WZC)?

Part 1: Exit the TP-LINK Utility and start the Wireless Zero Configuration service on your computer Step 1 After exiting TP-LINK Utility, select and right click on My Computer on desktop, select Manage to open Computer Management window. Step 2 Expand Services and Applications->Services, find and locate Wireless Zero Configuration in the Services list on the right side. Step 3 Select Wireless Zero Configuration, right click, and then select Properties. Step 4 Change Startup type to Automatic, click on Start button and make sure the Service status is Started. And then click OK. Part 2: Connect to wireless network Step 1 Open Control panel, select and double click Network Connections. Step 2 Select Wireless Network Connection, right click it and select Properties. Step 3 Choose “Wireless Networks” tab and tick “Use Windows to configure my wireless network settings” check box then click OK. Step 4 Then Select Wireless Network Connection, right click it, select and click View Available Wireless Networks. Step 5 Click Refresh Network list to view available wireless networks. Select the correct network which you want to connect, double click it or clickConnect button. Step 6 If the wireless network is secured, it will pop up a window asking for the key/password. Step 7 Enter the correct Key/Password then click Connect, wait for a while, you will connect the wireless network. Note: 1. If it keeps connecting to the network or acquiring IP address, please check if you have entered the correct key/password. 2. If it shows that the connection is Limited or no connectivity, please ensure that you have enabled DHCP server on the wireless router/access point.

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【FAQ】How to clear the DNS cache on your computer (Windows and MAC OS)

Then the system will cache responses from the DNS server on your computer. If a DNS record changes before the entry in your cache expires, you may not be able to connect to a website. You can flush, or clear, your DNS cache and force the system to acquire new DNS records from the DNS server. The steps below will help you to clear the DNS cache on your computer. Choose the operating system of your computer. Method 1: Through Control Panel (Recommended) Method 2: Through Command Method 1:Windows XP Step 1 Click On Start button on the bottom left of your screen, then click on RUN. Type in cmd in the open bar. Step 2 Type “ipconfig /flushdns” and press enter Refer to the picture as below, this step will help you to flush the DNS resolver Cache. Windows Vista & Windows 7 Step 1 Click on the Windows button on the bottom left of your screen, then start typing “cmd” into the "Start search" box on the bottom near the button, Click on the “cmd” under programs to open the command prompt. Step 2 Type “ipconfig /flushdns” and press enter Refer to the picture as below, this step will help you to flush the DNS resolver Cache. Windows 8 / 8.1 Step 1 Press “Windows key +F”, a search box will come out, please input cmd and press enter; Step 2 Type “ipconfig /flushdns” and press enter Refer to the picture as below, this step will help you to flush the DNS resolver Cache. Method 2: For Windows OS Press the Windows and R keys on your keyboard at the same time, you can see a small window as below pop up, then enter “cmd” into the field. Press enter to open the command prompt. Type “ipconfig /flushdns” and press enter Refer to the picture as below, this step will help you to flush the DNS resolver Cache. For MAC OS Step 1 Go to Utilities, and open the Terminal.app . Step 2 Type in the corresponding command to reset the DNS cache. For OS X Yosemite, it is discoveryutil mdnsflushcache . For OS X Mavericks, Mountain Lion, and Lion, it is killall -HUP mDNSResponder. For Mac OS X v10.6, it is dscacheutil -flushcache .

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【FAQ】How do I renew the IP address of my computer (Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, Mac)?

If you have configured your computer to Obtain an IP address automatically, sometimes such as after you change the IP address of your network gateway like router, you need renew the IP address of your computer to access the router. Choose your computer’s operating system. For Windows XP Step 1 Click Start->Run, type cmd and press Enter. Step 2 Type ipconfig /release at the prompt window, press Enter, it will release the current IP configuration. Step 3 Type ipconfig /renew at the prompt window, press Enter, wait for a while, the DHCP server will assign a new IP address for your computer. For Windows Vista& Windows 7 Step 1 Click Start on the task bar, type cmd into the search box and press Enter. Step 2 Type ipconfig /release at the prompt window, press Enter, it will release the current IP configuration. Step 3 Type ipconfig /renew at the prompt window, wait for a while, the DHCP server will assign a new IP address for your computer. For Windows 8 & Windows 8.1 Step 1 Press windows key and X key at the same time. Then click at Command Prompt. Step 2 Type ipconfig /release at the Command Prompt window, press Enter, it will release the current IP configuration. Step 3 Type ipconfig /renew at the Command Prompt window, wait for a while, the DHCP server will assign a new IP address for your computer. For MAC OS Step 1 Click APPLE button and go to System Preferences…. Step 2 Click Network. Step 3 Click on Wi-Fi or Ethernet (Depends on which one is used) in the left side box, and click Advanced on the right side corner. Step 4 In the top options, select TCP/IP. By default setting, Configure IPv4 is Using DHCP, you can see Renew DHCP Leasebutton. Click it to renew the IP address.

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【FAQ】How to find IP address of your computer (Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, Mac)?

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【FAQ】How to configure my wireless router with ASK4 Internet service?

Note: If you are living in student accommodation where ASK4 provide their own wireless service and you would like to use a router. You must set up a router as a wireless access point. Using a router that performs the DHCP service is against ASK4’s terms of use. Failure to disable the DHCP service of your router may result in your connection being suspended. For ASK4’s explanation of this application, you may refer to this website: http://portal.ask4.com/support/wireless-access-point/ Important Notes of ASK4: Using Multiple Devices: By default, you can have 2 devices registered to your Ask4 account. In order to have more than 2 devices registered (such as a phone or another PC), please contact ASK4. MAC Addresses: Devices are registered to the ASK4 network using their MAC Address (sometimes referred to as the physical or Wi-Fi address). The MAC address is a unique ID for your computer, tablet or smart phone. If you’ve been using your computer wired before following the guide above, you will need to register your wireless MAC address. Please con

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